Learning is identical with teaching, an activity in which teachers teach or guide the students toward the maturing process themselves. So, the term equivalent to the term – teaching learning. That is, we do not have to be diametrically contrasting between teaching( teacher-centered) with learning (student – centered), because in essence it can take place both synergistic activity. Thus, here also should be understood that teacher in teaching learning while students in learning is also teaching.

A. How should teachers use their physical presence in class?
B. How should teachers use their voices in class?
C. How should teachers mark the stages of a lesson?
D. What’s the best seating arrangement for a class?
E. What different student groupings can teachers use?
F. How can teachers evaluate the success or failure of their lessons?

A. How should teachers use their physical presence in class?
As we saw from the comment about a teachers clothes (page 3) “the teacher needs to have dress sense- not always the same old boring suits and ties!” , the teacher’s physical presence plays a large part in his or her management of the classroom environment.
All teachers, like all people, have their own physical characteristics and habits, and they will take these into the classroom with them. But there are a number of issues to consider which are not just idiosyncratic  and which have a direct bearing on the students’  perceptionyncratic  and which have a direct bearing on the students’  perception of us.
Proximity : teachers should consider how close they want to be to the students they are working with.
Appropriacy  : deciding how closely you should work with students is a matter of appropriacy.
Movement :  Some teachers tend to spend most of their class time in one place – at the front of the class, for example: to the side or in the middle.
Most successful teachers move around the classroom to some extent. How much a teacher moves around in the classroom, then, will depend on his or her personal style, where he or she feels most comfortable for the management of the class, how she or he feels it easier  to manage the classroom effectively, and whether or not he or she wants to work with smaller groups. 
Contact : much of what we have said is about the  issue of contact. In order to manage a class successfully, the teacher has to be aware  of what students are doing and, where possible, how they are feeling. It is almost impossible to help students to learn a language in a classroom setting without making contact with them. The exact nature of this contact will vary from teacher to teacher and from class to class. The teacher’s physical approach and personality in the class management to consider. Another is one of the teacher’s chief tools, the voice.

B. How should teachers use their voices in class?
Perhaps the teacher’s most important instrument is the voice. How we speak and what our voice sounds like have a crucial impact on class. When considering the use of the voice in the management of teaching, there are three issues to think about.
o Audibility : clearly, teachers need to be audible. Teachers do not have to shout to be audible. In fact, in most classrooms,  there is a danger of the teacher’s voice being too loud. Good teachers try to get this balance between audibility and volume just right.
o Variety : it is important for teachers to vary the quality of their voices- and the volume they speak at- depending on the type of lesson and the type of activity. In one particular situation, teachers often use very loud voices, and that is when they want students to be quite or stop doing something but it is worth pointing out that speaking quietly is often.
o Conservation : just like opera singers, teachers have to take great care of their voices.

C. How should teachers mark the stages of a lesson?
The teacher needs to provide variety, then clearly he or she will have to include different stages in his or her lessons. Teachers do not always explain exactly what they are going to do, however, since they sometimes want to maintain an element of surprise. In order for such changes of direction to be effective,
o The teachers first  needs to get the student’s attention.
o Some teachers clap their hands to get student’s attention.
o Some other teachers speak loudly, saying thing like, ‘thank you….. now can I have your attention please? Or  ‘ OK… thanks…….. let’s all face the front shall we?
o Another method is for the teacher to raise his or her hand.
o Finally, when activity or a lesson has finished, it helps if the teacher is able to provide some kind of closure- a summary of what has happened, perhaps, or a prediction of what will take place in the next lesson.

D. What’s  the best seating arrangement for a class?
In many classrooms around the world students sit in orderly rows. Sometimes, their chairs have little wooden pallets on one  of the arms as surfaces to write on. Sometimes, the students  will have desks in front of them. Clearly, we are seeing a number of different approaches in the different arrangements of chairs and this raises a number of a questions.
Is there something intrinsically superior about rigid seating arrangement  – or are such classrooms the product of traditional orthodoxy? Is one kind of seating arrangement better than another? What are the advantages of each? The following discuss these various arrangements.
o Orderly rows : when the students sit in rows in classrooms, there are obvious advantages. It means that the teacher has a clear view of all the students and the students can all see the teacher – in whose direction they are facing.
o One trick that many teachers use is to keep their students guessing. Especially where teachers need to ask individual students questions, it is important that they should not do so in order, student after student, line by line. That way, the procedure becomes very tedious and the students know when they are going to be asked and, once this has happened, that they are not going to be asked again.
o Circles and horseshoes : in smaller classes, many teachers and students prefer circles or horseshoes. In a horseshoes, the teacher will probably be at the open end of the arrangement since that may well be where the board, overhead projector and/or tape recorder are situated. In circle, the teacher’s position – where the board is situated – is less dominating. Classes which are arranged in a circle make quite a strong statement about what the teacher and the students believe in.
o Separate tables: even circles and horseshoes seem rather formal compared to classes where students are seated  in small groups at individual tables. When students sit in small groups at individual tables, the atmosphere in the class is much less hierarchical than in other arrangements. It is much easier for the teacher to work at one table while the others get on with their own work. However, this arrangement  is not without its own problems. In the first place, students may not always want to be with the same colleagues: indeed, their preferences may change over time. Secondly, it makes ‘whole-class’ teaching more difficult, since the students are more diffuse and separated.

E. What different student groupings can teachers use?
Whatever the seating arrangement in a classroom, students can be organized in different ways: they can work as a whole class, in groups, In pairs, or individually.
Whole class: as we have seen, there are many occasions when a teacher working with the class as a whole is the best type of classroom organization. However, this does not always mean the class sitting in orderly rows; whatever the seating arrangement, the teacher can have the students focus on him or her and the task in hand.
Groupwork and pairwork: these have become increasingly popular in language teaching since they are seen to have many advantages.
Solowork: this can have many advantages:
It allows students to work students to work at their own speed,
It allows them thinking  time, and allows them to be individuals.
How much teachers use groupwork, pairwork or solowork depends to a large extent on teacher style and student preferences.

F. How can teachers evaluate the success or failure of their lessons?
All teachers, whatever at the start of their careers or after some years of teaching, need to be able to try out new activities and techniques. But such experimentation will be of little use unless we can then evaluate these activities. Were they successful? Did the students enjoy them? Did they learn anything from them? How could the activities be changed to make them more effective next time?
One way of getting feedback is to ask students simple questions such as ‘ did you like that exercise? Did you find it successful? And see what they say. Another way of getting reactions is to invite a colleague into the classroom and ask him or her to observe what happens and make suggestion afterwards. In general, it is a good idea to get student’s reaction to lessons, and their aspirations about them, clearly stated. Good teachers managers also need to asses how well their students are progressing. This can be done through a variety of measures including homework assignment, speaking activities where the teachers scores the participation of each student, and frequent small progress tests. Good teachers keep a record of their student’s achievements so that they are always aware of how they are getting on. Only if the teachers keep such kinds of progress records can  they begin to see when teaching and learning has or has not been successful.

In this chapter we have
Discussed the teacher’s physical presence, saying that we should pay attention to our proximity to the students, think about how much we move around the class, and consider the appropriacy of our behavior in general.
Discussed the fact that the teachers need to be clearly audible without shouting in a disagreeable way and stressed the need for variety in the way teachers use their voices. Different activities call for different voices. And the varied use of the voice makes for more interesting classes.


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