S(IV). Literature. PROSE :FICTION DEFINITION,KIND AND ELEMENT FICTION DEFINITION

AKNOWLEDGMENT
Thanks to the God ALLAH SWT on his Almighty and Mercy, so the writers can finish completely and succesfully of this task.
The task is about prose. It is Fiction Definition,Kind And Element of Fiction. Fiction is referring to the short story and the novel. There are some elements of fiction such as Plot, Character, Setting, Point of View, Theme, Symbol and Allegory. This task is very important to give explanations about Fiction Definition, Kind and Element of Fiction more detail to students. It can have advantages in the lesson of English.
The writers expect that everybody can really support this task. The writers realize that this task still needs to be improved its quality. Therefore, the writers really require suggestions and criticism.

Bangkalan, 25 Maret 2014

Abdurrofiq

When we speak of fiction, most of us are referring to the short story and the novel the two genres that have dominated western literary culture since the late eighteenth century. Broadly defined, however, the term fiction refers to any narrative, in prose or in verse, that is wholly or in part the product of the imagination. As such, plays and narrative poems (poems that tell a story) can be classified as fiction ,as can folktales, parables, fables, legends, allegories , satires, and romances all of which contain certain fictional elements.
Most modern cities agree ,however ,that whatever its apparent factual content or verisililitude, fiction is finally to be regarded as a presentation or imitation of life and not to be confused with a literal transcription of life it self. Fiction or ganises and refines the raw material of fact to emphases and clarify the significance of fact. The world of fiction is a re-created world apart, a world of the possible or the probable, rather than the actual. It is governed by its own rules and internal completeness. The writer of fiction ,on the other hand, may deliberately choose not to deal with the world of our everyday experience at all. His chosen manner of treatment may be symbolic or allegorical rather than realistic; the tone may be comic, satiric, or ironic, rather than serious.
The writer of fiction,in short,is free to exercise tremendous freedom in his choice of subject matter and the fictional elements at his disposal,and he is free to invent,select,and arrange those elements so as to achieve any one of number of desired effects.In every instance,the measure of a writers success depends on just how well or how poorly he or she has succeded in unifying the story and controlling its impact.

THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION
PLOT
“STORY VS PLOT”
A plot is also a narrative of events, the emphasis falling on causality. The king died, and then the queen died of grief” is a plot. The time-sequence is preserved, but the sense of causality  overshadows it. Or again, ”the queen died, no one knew why , until it was discovered that it was through grief at the death of the king.” This is a plot with mystery in it, a from capable of high development.
     The term plot implies just such an overview ; it implies the controlling intelligence of an author who has winnowed the raw facts and incidents at his disposal and then ordered and arranged them to suggest or expose their causal relationship.
COMPLICATION . The complication, which is sometimes referred to as the rising action, breaks the existing equilibrium and introduces the characters and the underlying or inciting conflict ( if they have not already been introduced by the exposition
CRISIS . The crisis ( also referred to as the climax ) is that moment at which the plot reaches its point of greatest emotional intensity ; it is the turning point of the plot, directly precipitating its resolution.
FALLING ACTION. Once the crisis, or turning point, has been reached.
RESOLUTION . The final section of the plot is its resolution; it records the outcome of the conflict and establishes some new equilibrium or stability ( however tentative and momentary )
                                                                   CHARACTER
The relationship between plot and character is a vital and necessary one. Without character there would be no plot and, hence, no story . For most readers of fiction the primary attraction lies in the characters, in the endlessly fascinating collection of men and women whose experiences and adventures in life form the basis of the plots of the novels and stories in which they appear.

Methods of Characterization
      In presenting and establishing character, an author has two basic methods or techniques at his disposal. One method is telling, which relies on exposition and direct commentary by the author.
SETTING

Fiction can be devined as character in action at a certain ime and place. The first two elements of this equation, character and action, have already been discussed. Now we turn our attention to setting, a term that, in its broadest sense, encompassesboth the physical locale that frames the action and the time of day or year, the climactic conditions, and the historical period during which the action takes places.
In order to understand the purpose and function of setting the reader must pay particular attention to the descriptive passages in which the details of settings are introduced. In most short stories and in many novels setting is established at or near the beginning of the work as a means of orienting the reader and framing the action that is to follow. On the other hand, the author may want us to “feel” rather than simply “see” the setting, as is the case when setting is to be us as a means of creating mood and atmosphere.

The Functions of Setting
Setting in fiction is called on to perform a number of desired functions. Setting may serve (1) to provide background for the actions; (2) as an antagonist; (3) as a means of creating appropriate atosphere; (4) as a mean of revealing character; and (5) as a means of reinforcing theme.

POINT OF VIEW

A story must have a plot, characters, and a setting. It must also have a storyteller: a narrative voice, real or implied, that presents the story to the reader. When we talk about narrative voice, we are talking about point of view.
The choice of point of view is the choice of who is to tell the story, who talks to the reader. It may be a  narrator outside the work (omniscient point of view); a narrator inside the work, telling the story, from a limited omniscient or first-person point of view; or apparently no one (dramatic point of view). As we will see in the subsequent discussion, these four basic points of view, and their variations, involve at the extreme a choice between omniscient point of view and dramatic point of view a choice that involves. Among other things, the distance that the author wishes to maintain between the reader and the story and the extent to which the author moves away from omniscience along this spectrum of choice, he progressively surrenders the ability to see into the minds of his characters.
THEME
in  literature  theme is the central idea or statement about life that unifies and controls the total work
Rather, theme is the comment or statement the author makes about  that  subject as it necessarily and inevitably emerges from the interplay of the various element of the work.
Analyzing Theme
1. Does the work have a theme? Is it stated or implied?
2. What generalization(s) or statement(s) about life or human experience does the work make?
3. What elements of the work contribute most heavily to the formulation of the theme?
4. Does the theme emerge organically and naturally, or does the author  seem to force the theme upon the work?
5. What is the value or significance of the work’s theme? Is it topical of universal in its application?

SYMBOL AND ALLEGORY
Symbol
      A symbol, according  to Webster’s Dictionary, is “something that stands for or suggests something else by reason of relationship, association, convention or accidental resemblance . . . a visible sign of something invisible”
“a metaphor one half of which remains unstated and indefinite”
Traditional symbols are those whose associations are the common property of a society or a culture and are so widely recognized and accepted that they can be said to be almost universal. 
The presence of traditional symbols, it should be noted, does not mean that we are free to ignore the framing context of the work and to impose from the outside one pattern or another as we see fit.
Traditional symbol, for all their accompanying associations, must always be established by the context of the work and find their significance inside the work, not beyond it.

SUMMARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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