Antonym

Antonym is a word that is the opposite meaning of another. It comes from the Greek words “anti” for opposite and “onym” for name.
There are three categories of antonyms:
(A). Graded antonymsdeal with levels of the meaning of the words, like if something is not “good”, is may still not be “bad.” There is a scale involved with some words, and besides good and bad there can be average, fair, excellent, terrible, poor, or satisfactory.
Examples include:
*.Fat and skinny
*.Young and old
*.Happy and sad
*.Hard and soft
*.Last and first
*.Foolish and wise
*.Fast and slow
*.Warm and cool
*.Wide and narrow
*.Abundant and scarce
*.Joy and grief
*.Dark and light
*.Dangerous and safe
*.Clever and foolish
*.Early and late
*.Empty and full
*.Smart and dumb
*.Risky and safe
*.Bad and good
*.Pretty and ugly
*.Best and worst
*.Simple and challenging
*.Soft and hard
*.Worried and calm
*.Sane and crazy
*.Rich and poor
*.Cool and hot
*.Wet and dry
*.Late and early
*.Ignorant and educated
*.Big and small
*.Optimistic and pessimistic
*.Excited and bored
*.Dull and interesting.
(B). Complementary antonymshave a relationship where there is no middle ground. There are only two possibilities, either one or the other.
Examples include:
*.Man and woman
*.Push and pull
*.Dead and alive
*.Off and on
*.Day and night
*.Absent and present
*.Exit and entrance
*.Sink or float
*.True or false
*.Pass and fail
*.Former and latter
*.Input and output
*.Interior and exterior
*.Exhale and inhale
*.Input and output
*.Occupied and vacant
*.Leave and arrive
*.Pre and post
*.Question and answer
*.Single and married
*.Hired and fired
*.Brother and sister
*.Before and after
*.Crooked and straight
*.Identical and different
*.Natural or artificial
*.Silence or noise
*.Identical or different
*.Yes and no
*.Wet and dry
*.Sharp and dull
*.Raise and lower
*.Fantasy and reality.

(C). Relational antonymsare sometimes considered a subcategory of complementary antonyms. With these pairs, for there to be a relationship, both must exist.
Examples are:
*.Husband and wife
*.Doctor and patient
*.Buy and sell
*.Predator and prey
*.Above and below
*.Give and receive
*.Teach and learn
*.Instructor and pupil
*.Servant and master
*.Borrow and lend
*.Come and go
*.Toward and away
*.Divisor and dividend
*.Parent and child
*.East and west
*.North and south
*.Seller and buyer
*.Mother and daughter
*.Slave and master
*.Floor and ceiling
*.Front and back
*.Up and down
*.Win and lose
*.Part and whole
*.Offense and defense
*.Behind and ahead
*.Before and after
*.On or off
*.Trap and release
*.Lost and found
*.Left and right
*.Give and get
*.Employer employee.

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